The General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours
Issued 2 February, 1971
Chapter I: Importance of the Liturgy of the Hours or Divine Office in the Life of the Church
I. Prayer of Christ
II. Prayer of the Church
III. Liturgy of the Hours
IV. Participants in the Liturgy of the Hours
A. Celebration in Common
B. Mandate to Celebration the Liturgy of the Hours
C. Structure of the Celebration
Chapter II: Sanctification of the Day: The Different Liturgical Hours
I. Introduction to the Whole Office
II. Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer
III. Office of Readings
V. Daytime Hours
VI. Night Prayer
VII. Combining the Hours With Mass or With Each Other
Chapter III: Different Elements in the Liturgy of the Hours
I. Psalms and Their Connection With Christian Prayer
II. Antiphons and Other Aids to Praying the Psalms
III. Ways of Singing the Psalms
IV. Plan for the Distribution of the Psalms in the Office
V. Canticles From the Old and New Testaments
VI. Readings from Sacred Scripture
A. Reading of Sacred Scripture in General
B. Cycle of Scripture REadings in the Office of Readings
C. Short Readings
VII. Readings from the Fathers and Church Writers
VIII. Readings in Honor of Saints
X. Hymns and Other Nonbiblical Songs
XI. Intercessions, Lord's Prayer, and Concluding Prayer
A. The Prayers or Intercessions at Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer
B. Lord's Prayer
C. Concluding Prayer
XII. Sacred Silence
Chapter IV: Various Celebrations Throughout the Year
I. Mysteries of the Lord
B. Easter Triduum
C. Easter Season
D. Christmas Season
E. Other Solemnities and Feasts of the Lord
II. The Saints
III. Calendar and Option to Choose an Office or Part of an Office
A. Calendar to be Followed
B. Option to Choose an Office
C. Option to Choose Texts
Chapter V: Rites for Celebration in Common
I. Offices to be Carried Out
II. Singing in the Office
IMPORTANCE OF THE LITURGY OF THE HOURS OR DIVINE OFFICE IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH
1. Public and common prayer by the people of God is rightly considered to be
among the primary duties of the Church. From the very beginning those who were
baptized "devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles and to the
community, to the breaking of the bread, and to prayer" (Acts 2:42). The Acts of
the Apostles give frequent testimony to the fact that the Christian community
prayed with one accord. 
The witness of the early Church teaches us that individual Christians devoted
themselves to prayer at fixed times. Then, in different places, it soon became
the established practice to assign special times for common prayer, for example,
the last hour of the day when evening draws on and the lamp is lighted, or the
first hour when night draws to a close with the rising of the sun.
In the course of time other hours came to be sanctified by prayer in common.
These were seen by the Fathers as foreshadowed in the Acts of the Apostles.
There we read of the disciples gathered together at the third hour.  The
prince of the apostles "went up on the housetop to pray, about the sixth hour"
(10:9); "Peter and John were going up to the temple at the hour of prayer, the
ninth hour" (3:1); "about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns
to God" (16:25).
2. Such prayer in common gradually took the form of a set cycle of hours. This
liturgy of the hours or divine office, enriched by readings, is principally a
prayer of praise and petition. Indeed, it is the prayer of the Church with
Christ and to Christ.
I. PRAYER OF CHRIST
CHRIST THE INTERCESSOR WITH THE FATHER
3. When the Word, proceeding from the Father as the splendor of his glory, came
to give us all a share in God's life, "Christ Jesus, High Priest of the new and
eternal covenant, taking human nature, introduced into this earthly exile the
hymn of praise that is sung throughout all ages in the halls of heaven." 
From then on in Christ's heart the praise of God assumes a human sound in words
of adoration, expiation, and intercession, presented to the Father by the Head
of the new humanity, the Mediator between God and his people, in the name of all
and for the good of all.
4. In his goodness the Son of God, who is one with his Father (see Jn 10:30) and
who on entering the world said: "Here I am! I come, God, to do your will" (Heb
10:9; see Jn 6:38), has left us the lesson of his own prayer. The Gospels many
times show us Christ at prayer: when his mission is revealed by the Father; 
before he calls the apostles;  when he blesses God at the multiplication of
the loaves;  when he is transfigured on the mountain;  when he heals the
deaf-mute;  when he raises Lazarus;  before he asks for Peter's confession
of faith;  when he teaches the disciples how to pray; when the disciples
return from their mission;  when he blesses the little children;  when
he prays for Peter. 
The work of each day was closely bound up with his prayer, indeed flowed out
from it: he would retire into the desert or into the hills to pray,  rise
very early  or spend the night up to the fourth watch  in prayer to God.
We are right in thinking that he took part both in public prayers: in the
synagogues, which he entered on the Sabbath "as his custom was;"  in the
temple, which he called a house of prayer;  and in the private prayers that
for devout Israelites were a daily practice. He used the traditional blessings
of God at meals, as is expressly mentioned in connection with the multiplication
of the loaves,  the last supper  and the meal at Emmaus.  He also
joined with the disciples in a hymn of praise. 
To the very end of his life, as his passion was approaching,  at the last
supper,  in the agony in the garden,  and on the cross,  the divine
teacher showed that prayer was the soul of his Messianic ministry and paschal
death. "In the days of his life on earth he offered up prayers and entreaties
with loud cries and tears to the one who could deliver him from death and
because of his reverence his prayer was heard" (Heb 5:7). By a single offering
on the altar of the cross "he has made perfect forever those who are being
sanctified" (Heb 10-14). Raised from the dead, he lives for ever, making
intercession for us. 
II. PRAYER OF THE CHURCH
COMMANDMENT TO PRAY
5. Jesus has commanded us to do as he did. On many occasions he said: "Pray,"
"ask," "seek"  "in my name."  He taught us how to pray in what is known
as the Lord's Prayer.  He taught us that prayer is necessary,  that it
should be humble,  watchful,  persevering, confident in the Father's
goodness,  single-minded, and in conformity with God's nature. 
Here and there in their letters the apostles have handed on to us many prayers,
particularly of praise and thanks. They instruct us on prayer in the Holy
Spirit,  through Christ,  offered to God,  as to its persistence and
constancy,  its power to sanctify,  and on prayer of praise, 
thanks,  petition,  and intercession for all. 
CHRIST'S PRAYER CONTINUED BY THE CHURCH
6. Since we are entirely dependent on God, we must acknowledge and express this
sovereignty of the Creator, as the devout people of every age have done by means
Prayer directed to God must be linked with Christ, the Lord of all, the one
Mediator  through whom alone we have access to God. He unites to himself
the whole human community  in such a way that there is an intimate bond
between the prayer of Christ and the prayer of all humanity. In Christ and in
Christ alone human worship of God receives its redemptive value and attains its
7. There is a special and very close bond between Christ and those whom he makes
members of his Body, the Church, through the sacrament of rebirth. Thus, from
the Head all the riches belonging to the Son flow throughout the whole Body: the
communication of the Spirit, the truth, the life, and the participation in the
divine sonship that Christ manifested in all his prayer when he dwelt among us.
Christ's priesthood is also shared by the whole Body of the Church, so that the
baptized are consecrated as a spiritual temple and holy priesthood through the
rebirth of baptism and the anointing by the Holy Spirit  and are empowered
to offer the worship of the New Covenant, a worship that derives not from our
own powers but from Christ's merit and gift.
"God could give us no greater gift than to establish as our Head the Word
through whom he created all things and to unite us to that Head as members. The
results are many The Head is Son of God and Son of Man, one as God with the
Father and one as man with us. When we speak in prayer to the Father, we do not
separate the Son from him and when the Son's Body prays it does not separate
itself from its Head. It is the one Savior of his Body, the Lord Christ Jesus,
who prays for us and in us and who is prayed to by us. He prays for us as our
priest, in us as our Head; he is prayed to by us as our God. Recognize therefore
our own voice in him and his voice in us." 
The excellence of Christian prayer lies in its sharing in the reverent love of
the only-begotten Son for the Father and in the prayer that the Son put into
words in his earthly life and that still continues without ceasing in the name
of the whole human race and for its salvation, throughout the universal Church
and in all its members.
ACTION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
8. The unity of the Church at prayer is brought about by the Holy Spirit, who is
the same in Christ,  in the whole Church, and in every baptized person. It
is this Spirit who "helps us in our weakness" and "intercedes for us with
longings too deep for words" (Rom 8:26). As the Spirit of the Son, he gives us
"the spirit of adopted children, by which we cry out: Abba, Father" (Rom 8:15;
see Gal 4:6; 1 Cor 12:3; Eph 5:18; Jude 20). There can be therefore no Christian
prayer without the action of the Holy Spirit, who unites the whole Church and
leads it through the Son to the Father.
COMMUNITY CHARACTER OF PRAYER
9. It follows that the example and precept of our Lord and the apostles in
regard to constant and persevering prayer are not to be seen as a purely legal
regulation. They belong to the very essence of the Church itself, which is a
community and which in prayer must express its nature as a community. Hence,
when the community of believers is first mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles,
it is seen as a community gathered together at prayer "with the women and Mary,
the mother of Jesus, and his brothers" (Acts 1:14). "There was one heart and
soul in the company of those who believed" (Acts 4:32). Their oneness in spirit
was founded on the word of God, on the communion of charity, on prayer, and on
the eucharist. 
Though prayer in private and in seclusion  is always necessary and to be
encouraged  and is practiced by the members of the Church through Christ in
the Holy Spirit, there is a special excellence in the prayer of the community.
Christ himself has said: "Where two or three are gathered together in my name, I
am there in their midst" (Mt 18:20).
III. LITURGY OF THE HOURS
CONSECRATION OF TIME
10. Christ taught us: "You must pray at all times and not lose heart" (Lk 18:1).
The Church has been faithful in obeying this instruction; it never ceases to
offer prayer and makes this exhortation its own: "Through him (Jesus) let us
offer to God an unceasing sacrifice of praise" (Heb 15:15). The Church fulfills
this precept not only by celebrating the eucharist but in other ways also,
especially through the liturgy of the hours. By ancient Christian tradition what
distinguishes the liturgy of the hours from other liturgical services is that it
consecrates to God the whole cycle of the day and the night. 
11. The purpose of the liturgy of the hours is to sanctify the day and the whole
range of human activity. Therefore its structure has been revised in such a way
as to make each hour once more correspond as nearly as possible to natural time
and to take account of the circumstances of life today. 
Hence, "that the day may be truly sanctified and the hours themselves recited
with spiritual advantage, it is best that each of them be prayed at a time most
closely corresponding to the true time of each canonical hour." 
LITURGY OF THE HOURS AND THE EUCHARIST
12. To the different hours of the day the liturgy of the hours extends  the
praise and thanksgiving, the memorial of the mysteries of salvation, the
petitions and the foretaste of heavenly glory that are present in the
eucharistic mystery, "the center and high point in the whole life of the
Christian community." 
The liturgy of the hours is in turn an excellent preparation for the celebration
of the eucharist itself, for it inspires and deepens in a fitting way the
dispositions necessary for the fruitful celebration of the eucharist: faith,
hope, love, devotion, and the spirit of self-denial.
PRIESTHOOD OF CHRIST IN THE LITURGY OF THE HOURS
13. In the Holy Spirit Christ carries out through the Church "the task of
redeeming humanity and giving perfect glory to God,"  not only when the
eucharist is celebrated and the sacraments administered but also in other ways
and especially when the liturgy of the hours is celebrated.  There Christ
himself is present - in the gathered community, in the proclamation of God's
word, "in the prayer and song of the Church." 
SANCTIFICATION OF GOD'S PEOPLE
14. Our sanctification is accomplished  and worship is offered to God in the
liturgy of the hours in such a way that an exchange or dialogue is set up
between God and us, in which "God is speaking to his people ... and his people
are responding to him by both song and prayer." 
Those taking part in the liturgy of the hours have access to holiness of the
richest kind through the life-giving word of God, which in this liturgy receives
great emphasis. Thus its readings are drawn from sacred Scripture, God's words
in the psalms are sung in his presence, and the intercessions, prayers, and
hymns are inspired by Scripture and steeped in its spirit. 
Hence, not only when those things are read "that are written for our
instruction" (Rom 15:4), but also when the Church prays or sings, faith is
deepened for those who take part and their minds are lifted up to God, in order
to offer him their worship as intelligent beings and to receive his grace more
PRAISING GOD WITH THE CHURCH IN HEAVEN
15. In the liturgy of the hours the Church exercises the priestly office of its
Head and offers to God "without ceasing"  a sacrifice of praise, that is, a
tribute of lips acknowledging his name.  This prayer is "the voice of a
bride addressing her bridegroom; it is the very prayer that Christ himself,
together with his Body, addresses to the Father."  "All who render this
service are not only fulfilling a duty of the Church, but also are sharing in
the greatest honor of Christ's Bride for by offering these praises to God they
are standing before God's throne in the name of the Church, their Mother." 
16. When the Church offers praise to God in the liturgy of the hours, it unites
itself with that hymn of praise sung throughout all ages in the halls of heaven;
 it also receives a foretaste of the song of praise in heaven, described by
John in the Book of Revelation, the song sung continually before the throne of
God and of the Lamb. Our close union with the Church in heaven is given
effective voice "when we all, from every tribe and tongue and people and nation
redeemed by Christ's blood (see Rv 5:9) and gathered together into the one
Church, glorify the triune God with one hymn of praise." 
The prophets came almost to a vision of this liturgy of heaven as the victory of
a day without night, of a light without darkness: "The sun will no more be your
light by day, and the brightness of the moon will not shine upon you, but the
Lord will be your everlasting light" (Is 60:19; see Rv 21:23 and 25). "There
will be a single day, known to the Lord, not day and night, and at evening there
will be light" (Zech 14:7). Already "the end of the ages has come upon us (see I
Cor 10:11) and the renewal of the world has been irrevocably established and in
a true sense is being anticipated in this world."  By faith we too are
taught the meaning of our temporal life, so that we look forward with all
creation to the revealing of God's children.  In the liturgy of the hours we
proclaim this faith, we express and nourish this hope, we share in some degree
the joy of everlasting praise and of that day that knows no setting.
PETITION AND INTERCESSION
17. But besides the praise of God, the Church in the liturgy of the hours
expresses the prayers and desires of all the faithful; indeed, it prays to
Christ, and through him to the Father, for the salvation of the whole world.
 The Church's voice is not just its own; it is also Christ's voice, since
its prayers are offered in Christ's name, that is, "through our Lord Jesus
Christ," and so the Church continues to offer the prayer and petition that
Christ poured out in the days of his earthly life  and that have therefore a
unique effectiveness. The ecclesial community thus exercises a truly maternal
function in bringing souls to Christ, not only by charity, good example, and
works of penance but also by prayer. 
The concern with prayer involves those especially who have been called by a
special mandate to carry out the liturgy of the hours: bishops and priests as
they pray in virtue of their office for their own people and for the whole
people of God;  other sacred ministers, and also religious. 
18. Those then who take part in the liturgy of the hours bring growth to God's
people in a hidden but fruitful apostolate,  for the work of the apostolate
is directed to this end, "that all who are made children of God by faith and
baptism should come together to praise God in the midst of this Church, to take
part in the sacrifice, and to eat the Lord's Supper." 
Thus by their lives the faithful show forth and reveal to others "the mystery of
Christ and the real nature of the true Church. It is of the essence of the
Church to be visible yet endowed with invisible resources, eager to act yet
intent on contemplation, present in this world yet not at home in it." 
In their turn the readings and prayers of the liturgy of the hours form a
wellspring of the Christian life: the table of sacred Scripture and the writings
of the saints nurture its life and prayers strengthen it. Only the Lord, without
whom we can do nothing,  can, in response to our request, give power and
increase to what we do,  so that we may be built up each day in the Spirit
into the temple of God,  to the measure of Christ's fullness,  and
receive greater strength also to bring the good news of Christ to those outside.
HARMONY OF MIND AND VOICE
19. Mind and voice must be in harmony in a celebration that is worthy,
attentive, and devout, if this prayer is to be made their own by those taking
part and to be a source of devotion, a means of gaining God's manifold grace, a
deepening of personal prayer, and an incentive to the work of the apostolate.
 All should be intent on cooperating with God's grace, so as not to receive
it in vain. Seeking Christ, penetrating ever more deeply into his mystery
through prayer  they should offer praise and petition to God with the same
mind and heart as the divine Redeemer when he prayed.
IV. PARTICIPANTS IN THE LITURGY OF THE HOURS
A. CELEBRATION IN COMMON
20. The liturgy of the hours, like other liturgical services, is not a private
matter but belongs to the whole Body of the Church, whose life it both expresses
and affects.  This liturgy stands out most strikingly as an ecclesial
celebration when, through the bishop surrounded by his priests and ministers,
 the local Church celebrates it. For "in the local Church the one, holy,
catholic, and apostolic Church is truly present and at work."  Such a
celebration is therefore most earnestly recommended. When, in the absence of the
bishop, a chapter of canons or other priests celebrate the liturgy of the hours,
they should always respect the true time of day and, as far as possible, the
people should take part. The same is to be said of collegiate chapters.
21. Wherever possible, other groups of the faithful should celebrate the liturgy
of the hours communally in church. This especially applies to parishes - the
cells of the diocese, established under their pastors, taking the place of the
bishop; they "represent in some degree the visible Church established throughout
the world." 
22. Hence, when the people are invited to the liturgy of the hours and come
together in unity of heart and voice, they show forth the Church in its
celebration of the mystery of Christ. 
23. Those in holy orders or with a special canonical mission  have the
responsibility of initiating and directing the prayer of the community; "they
should expend every effort so that those entrusted to their care may become of
one mind in prayer."  They must therefore see to it that the people are
invited, and prepared by suitable instruction, to celebrate the principal hours
in common, especially on Sundays and holydays.  They should teach the people
how to make this participation a source of genuine prayer;  they should
therefore give the people suitable guidance in the Christian understanding of
the psalms, in order to progress by degrees to a greater appreciation and more
frequent use of the prayer of the Church. 
24. Communities of canons, monks, nuns, and other religious who celebrate the
liturgy of the hours by rule or according to their constitutions, whether with
the general rite or a particular rite, in whole or in part, represent in a
special way the Church at prayer. They are a fuller sign of the Church as it
continuously praises God with one voice and they fulfill the duty of "working,"
above all by prayer, "to build up and increase the whole Mystical Body of
Christ, and for the good of the local Churches."  This is especially true
of those living the contemplative life.
25. Even when having no obligation to communal celebration, all sacred ministers
and all clerics living in a community or meeting together should arrange to say
at least some part of the liturgy of the hours in common, particularly morning
prayer and evening prayer. 
26. Men and women religious not bound to a common celebration, as well as
members of any institute of perfection, are strongly urged to gather together,
by themselves or with the people, to celebrate the liturgy of the hours or part
27. Lay groups gathering for prayer, apostolic work, or any other reason are
encouraged to fulfill the Church's duty,  by celebrating part of the
liturgy of the hours. The laity must learn above all how in the liturgy they are
adoring God the Father in spirit and in truth;  they should bear in mind
that through public worship and prayer they reach all humanity and can
contribute significantly to the salvation of the whole world. 
Finally, it is of great advantage for the family, the domestic sanctuary of the
Church, not only to pray together to God but also to celebrate some parts of the
liturgy of the hours as occasion offers, in order to enter more deeply into the
life of the Church. 
B. MANDATE TO CELEBRATE THE LITURGY OF THE HOURS
28. Sacred ministers have the liturgy of the hours entrusted to them in such a
particular way that even when the faithful are not present they are to pray it
themselves with the adaptations necessary under these circumstances. The Church
commissions them to celebrate the liturgy of the hours so as to ensure at least
in their persons the regular carrying out of the duty of the whole community and
the unceasing continuance of Christ's prayer in the Church. 
The bishop represents Christ in an eminent and conspicuous way and is the high
priest of his flock; the life in Christ of his faithful people may be said in a
sense to derive from him and depend on him.  He should, then, be the first
of all the members of his Church in offering prayer. His prayer in the
recitation of the liturgy of the hours is always made in the name of the Church
and on behalf of the Church entrusted to him. 
United as they are with the bishop and the whole presbyterium, priests are
themselves representative in a special way of Christ the Priest  and so
share the same responsibility of praying to God for the people entrusted to them
and indeed for the whole world. 
All these ministers fulfill the ministry of the Good Shepherd who prays for his
sheep that they may have life and so be brought into perfect unity.  In the
liturgy of the hours that the Church sets before them they are not only to find
a source of devotion and a strengthening of personal prayer,  but must also
nourish and foster pastoral missionary activity as the fruit of their
contemplation to gladden the whole Church of God. 
29. Hence bishops, priests, and other sacred ministers, who have received from
the Church the mandate to celebrate the liturgy of the hours (see no. 17),
should recite the full sequence of hours each day, observing as far as possible
the true time of day.
They should, first and foremost, attach due importance to those hours that are,
so to speak, the two hinges of the liturgy of the hours, that is, morning prayer
and evening prayer,, which should not be omitted except for a serious reason.
They should faithfully pray the office of readings, which is above all a
liturgical celebration of the word of God. In this way they fulfill daily a duty
that is peculiarly their own, that is, of receiving the word of God into their
lives, so that they may become more perfect as disciples of the Lord and
experience more deeply the unfathomable riches of Christ. 
In order to sanctify the whole day more completely, they will also treasure the
recitation of daytime prayer and night prayer, to round off the whole Opus Dei
and to commend themselves to God before retiring.
30. It is most fitting that permanent deacons recite daily at least some part of
the liturgy of the hours, to be determined by the conference of bishops. 
31. a. Cathedral and collegiate chapters should celebrate in choir those parts
of the liturgy of the hours that are prescribed for them by the general law or
by particular law.
In private recitation individual members of these chapters should include those
hours that are recited in their chapter, in addition to the hours prescribed for
all sacred ministers. 
b. Religious communities bound to the recitation of the liturgy of the hours and
their individual members should celebrate the hours in keeping with their own
particular law; but the prescription of no. 29 in regard to those in holy orders
is to be respected.
Communities bound to choir should celebrate the whole sequence of the hours
daily in choir;  when absent from choir their members should recite the
hours in keeping with their own particular law; but the prescriptions in no. 29
are always to be respected.
32. Other religious communities and their individual members are advised to
celebrate some parts of the liturgy of the hours, in accordance with their own
situation, for it is the prayer of the Church and makes the whole Church,
scattered throughout the world, one in heart and mind. 
This recommendation applies also to laypersons. 
C. STRUCTURE OF THE CELEBRATION
33. The structure of the liturgy of the hours follows laws of its own and
incorporates in its own way elements found in other Christian celebrations. Thus
it is so constructed that, after a hymn, there is always psalmody, then a long
or short reading of sacred Scripture, and finally prayer of petition.
In a celebration in common and in private recitation the essential structure of
this liturgy remains the same, that is, it is a conversation between God and his
people. Celebration in common, however, expresses more clearly the ecclesial
nature of the liturgy of the hours; it makes for active participation by all, in
a way suited to each one's condition, through the acclamations, dialogue,
alternating psalmody, and similar elements. It also better provides for the
different literary genres that make up the liturgy of the hours.  Hence,
whenever it is possible to have a celebration in common, with the people present
and actively taking part, this kind of celebration is to be preferred to one
that is individual and, as it were, private.  It is also advantageous to
sing the office in choir and in community as opportunity Offers, in accordance
with the nature and function of the individual parts.
In this way the Apostle's exhortation is obeyed: "Let the word of Christ dwell
in you in all its fullness, as you teach and counsel each other in all wisdom by
psalms, hymns, and spiritual canticles, singing thankfully to God in your
hearts" (Col 3:16; see Eph 5:19-20).
SANCTIFICATION OF THE DAY: THE DIFFERENT LITURGICAL HOURS
I. INTRODUCTION TO THE WHOLE OFFICE
34. The whole office begins as a rule with an invitatory. This consists in the
verse, Lord, open my lips. And my mouth will proclaim your praise, and Ps 95.
This psalm invites the faithful each day to sing God's praise and to listen to
his voice and draws them to hope for "the Lord's rest." 
In place of Ps 95, Ps 100, Ps 67, or Ps 24 may be used as circumstances may
It is preferable to recite the invitatory psalm responsorially as it is set out
in the text, that is, with the antiphon recited at the beginning, then repeated,
and repeated again after each strophe.
35. The invitatory is placed at the beginning of the whole sequence of the day's
prayer, that is, it precedes either morning prayer or the office of readings,
whichever of these liturgical rites begins the day. The invitatory psalm with
its antiphon may be omitted, however, when the invitatory is the prelude to
36. The variation of the invitatory antiphon, to suit the different liturgical
days, is indicated at its place of occurrence.
II. MORNING PRAYER AND EVENING PRAYER
37. "By the venerable tradition of the universal Church, lauds as morning prayer
and vespers as evening prayer are the two hinges on which the daily office
turns; hence they are to be considered as the chief hours and celebrated as
38. As is clear from many of the elements that make it up, morning prayer is
intended and arranged to sanctify the morning. St. Basil the Great gives an
excellent description of this character in these words: "It is said in the
morning in order that the first stirrings of our mind and will may be
consecrated to God and that we may take nothing in hand until we have been
gladdened by the thought of God, as it is written: 'I was mindful of God and was
glad' (Ps 77:4 [Jerome's translation from Hebrew]), or set our bodies to any
task before we do what has been said: 'I will pray to you, Lord, you will hear
my voice in the morning; I will stand before you in the morning and gaze on you'
(Ps 5:4-5)." 
Celebrated as it is as the light of a new day is dawning, this hour also recalls
the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, the true light enlightening all people (see
Jn 1:9) and "the sun of justice" (Mal 4:2), "rising from on high" (Lk 1:78).
Hence, we can well understand the advice of St. Cyprian: "There should be prayer
in the morning so that the resurrection of the Lord may thus be celebrated." 
39. When evening approaches and the day is already far spent, evening prayer is
celebrated in order that "we may give thanks for what has been given us, or what
we have done well, during the day."  We also recall the redemption through
the prayer we send up "like incense in the Lord's sight," and in which "the
raising up of our hands" becomes "an evening sacrifice."  This sacrifice "may
also be interpreted more spiritually as the true evening sacrifice that our
Savior the Lord entrusted to the apostles at supper on the evening when he
instituted the sacred mysteries of the Church or of the evening sacrifice of the
next day, the sacrifice, that is, which, raising his hands, he offered to the
Father at the end of the ages for the salvation of the whole world."  Again,
in order to fix our hope on the light that knows no setting, "we pray and make
petition for the light to come down on us anew; we implore the coming of Christ
who will bring the grace of eternal light."  Finally, at this hour we join
with the Churches of the East in calling upon the "joy-giving light of that holy
glory, born of the immortal, heavenly Father, the holy and blessed Jesus Christ;
now that we have come to the setting of the sun and have seen the evening star,
we sing in praise of God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. . . ."
40. Morning prayer and evening prayer are therefore to be accorded the highest
importance as the prayer of the Christian community. Their public or communal
celebration should be encouraged, especially in the case of those who live in
community. Indeed, the recitation of these hours should be recommended also to
individual members of the faithful unable to take part in a celebration in
41. Morning prayer and evening prayer begin with the introductory verse, God
come to my assistance. Lord, make haste to help me. There follows the Glory to
the Father, with As it was in the beginning and Alleluia (omitted in Lent). This
introduction is omitted at morning prayer when the invitatory immediately
42. Then an appropriate hymn is sung immediately. The purpose of the hymn is to
set the tone for the hour or the feast and, especially in celebrations with a
congregation, to form a simple and pleasant introduction to prayer.
43. After the hymn the psalmody follows, in accordance with the rules laid down
in nos. 121-125. The psalmody of morning prayer consists of one morning psalm,
then a canticle from the Old Testament and, finally, a second psalm of praise,
following the tradition of the Church.
The psalmody of evening prayer consists of two psalms (or two parts of a longer
psalm) suited to the hour and to celebration with a congregation and a canticle
from the letters of the apostles or from the Book of Revelation.
44. After the psalmody there is either a short reading or a longer one.
45. The short reading is provided to fit the day, the season, and the feast. It
is to be read and received as a true proclamation of God's word that emphasizes
some holy thought or highlights some shorter passages that may be overlooked in
the continuous cycle of Scripture readings.
The short readings are different for each day of the psalter cycle.
46. Especially in a celebration with a congregation, a longer Scripture reading
may be chosen either from the office of readings or the Lectionary for Mass,
particularly texts that for some reason have not been used. From time to time
some other more suitable reading may be used, in accordance with the rules in
nos. 248-249 and 251.
47. In a celebration with a congregation a short homily may follow the reading
to explain its meaning, as circumstances suggest.
48. After the reading or homily a period of silence may be observed.
49. As a response to the word of God, a responsorial. chant or short responsory
is provided; this may be omitted. Other chants with the same purpose and
character may also be substituted in its place, provided these have been duly
approved by the conference of bishops.
50. Next is the solemn recitation of the gospel canticle with its antiphon, that
is, the Canticle of Zechariah at morning prayer and the Canticle of Mary at
evening prayer. Sanctioned by age-old popular usage in the Roman Church, these
canticles are expressions of praise and thanksgiving for our redemption. The
antiphon for each canticle is indicated, according to the character of the day,
the season, or the feast.
51. After the canticle, at morning prayer come the petitions for the
consecration of the day and its work to God and at evening prayer, the
intercessions (see nos. 179-193).
52. After the petitions or intercessions the Lord's Prayer is said by all.
53. Immediately after the Lord's Prayer there follows the concluding prayer,
which for weekdays in Ordinary Time is found in the psalter and for other days
in the proper.
54. Then, if a priest or deacon is presiding, he dismisses the congregation with
the greeting, The Lord be with you, and the blessing as at Mass. He adds the
invitation, Go in peace. R. Thanks be to God. In the absence of a priest or
deacon the celebration concludes with May the Lord bless us, etc.
III. OFFICE OF READINGS
55. The office of readings seeks to provide God's people, and in particular
those consecrated to God in a special way, with a wider selection of passages
from sacred Scripture for meditation, together with the finest excerpts from
spiritual writers. Even though the cycle of scriptural readings at daily Mass is
now richer, the treasures of revelation and tradition to be found in the office
of readings will also contribute greatly to the spiritual life. Bishops and
priests in particular should prize these treasures, so that they may hand on to
others the word of God they have themselves received and make their teaching
"the true nourishment for the people of God." 
56. But prayer should accompany "the reading of sacred Scripture so that there
may be a conversation between God and his people: 'we talk with God when we
pray, we listen to him when we read God's words."  For this reason the
office of readings consists also of psalms, a hymn, a prayer, and other texts,
giving it the character of true prayer.
57. The Constitution on the Liturgy directs that the office of readings, "though
it should retain its character as a night office of praise when celebrated in
choir, shall be adapted so that it may be recited at any hour of the day; it
shall be made up of fewer psalms and longer readings." 
58. Those who are obliged by their own particular law and others who commendably
wish to retain the character of this office as a night office of praise (either
by saying it at night or very early in the morning and before morning prayer),
during Ordinary Time choose the hymn from the selection given for this purpose.
Moreover, for Sundays, solemnities, and certain feasts what is said in nos.
70-73 about vigils must be kept in mind.
59. Without prejudice to the regulations just given, the office of readings may
be recited at any hour of the day, even during the night hours of the previous
day, after evening prayer has been said.
60. If the office of readings is said before morning prayer, the invitatory
precedes it, as noted (nos. 34-36). Otherwise it begins with the verse, God,
come to my assistance with the Glory to the Father, As it was in the beginning,
and the Alleluia (omitted in Lent).
61. Then the hymn is sung. In Ordinary Time this is taken either from the night
selections, as already indicated (nos. 34-36), or from the morning selections,
depending on what the true time of day requires.
62. The psalmody follows and consists of three psalms (or parts in the case of
longer psalms). During the Easter triduum, on days within the octaves of Easter
and Christmas, on solemnities and feasts, the psalms are proper, with their
On Sundays and weekdays, however, the psalms and their antiphons are taken from
the current week and day of the psalter. On memorials of the saints they are
similarly taken from the current week and day of the psalter, unless there are
proper psalms or antiphons (see nos. 218ff.).
63. Between the psalmody and the readings there is, as a rule, a verse, marking
a transition in the prayer from psalmody to listening.
64. There are two readings: the first is from the Scriptures, the second is from
the writings of the Fathers or church writers, or else is a reading connected
with the saints.
65. After each reading there is a responsory (see nos. 169-172).
66. The scriptural reading is normally to be taken from the Proper of Seasons,
in accordance with the rules to be given later (nos. 140-155). On solemnities
and feasts, however, it is taken from the proper or the common.
67. On solemnities and feasts of saints a proper second reading is used; if
there is none, the second reading is taken from the respective Common of Saints.
On memorials of saints when the celebration is not impeded, the reading in
connection with the saint replaces the current second reading (see nos. 166 and
68. On Sundays outside Lent, on days within the octaves of Easter and Christmas,
and on solemnities and feasts the Te Deum is said after the second reading with
its responsory but is omitted on memorials and weekdays. The last part of this
hymn, that is, from the verse, Save your people, Lord to the end, may be
69. The office of readings normally concludes with the prayer proper to the day
and, at least in recitation in common, with the acclamation, Let us praise the
Lord. R. And give him thanks.
70. The Easter Vigil is celebrated by the whole Church, in the rites given in
the relevant liturgical books. "The vigil of this night," as St. Augustine said,
"is of such importance that it could claim exclusively for itself the name
'vigil,' common though this is to all the others."  "We keep vigil on that
night when the Lord rose again and inaugurated for us in his humanity that
life ... in which there is neither death nor sleep.... Hence, the one whose
resurrection we celebrate by keeping watch a little longer will see to it that
we reign with him by living a life without end." 
71. As with the Easter Vigil, it was customary to begin certain solemnities
(different in different Churches) with a vigil. Among these solemnities
Christmas and Pentecost are preeminent. This custom should be maintained and
fostered, according to the particular usage of each Church. Whenever it seems
good to add a vigil for other solemnities or pilgrimages, the general norms for
celebrations of the word should be followed.
72. The Fathers and spiritual writers have frequently encouraged Christians,
especially those who lead the contemplative life, to pray during the night. Such
prayer expresses and awakens our expectation of the Lord's Second Coming: "At
midnight the cry went up: 'See, the bridegroom is coming, go out to meet him...
(Mt 25:6). "Keep watch, then, for you do not know when the master of the house
is coming, whether late or at midnight or at cockcrow or in the morning, so that
if he comes unexpectedly he may not find you sleeping" (Mk 13:35-36). All who
maintain the character of the office of readings as a night office, therefore,
are to be commended.
73. Further, since in the Roman Rite the office of readings is always of a
uniform brevity, especially for the sake of those engaged in apostolic work,
those who desire, in accordance with tradition, to extend the celebration of the
vigils of Sundays, solemnities, and feasts should do so as follows.
First, the office of readings is to be celebrated as in The Liturgy of the Hours
up to the end of the readings. After the two readings and before the Te Deum
canticles should be added from the special appendix of The Liturgy of the Hours.
Then the gospel should be read; a homily on the gospel may be added. After this
the Te Deum is sung and the prayer said.
On solemnities and feasts the gospel is to be taken from the Lectionary for
Mass; on Sundays, from the series on the paschal mystery in the appendix of The
Liturgy of the Hours.
V. DAYTIME HOURS
74. Following a very ancient tradition Christians have made a practice of
praying out of private devotion at various times of the day, even in the course
of their work, in imitation of the Church in apostolic times. In different ways
with the passage of time this tradition has taken the form of a liturgical
75. Liturgical custom in both East and West has retained midmorning, midday, and
midafternoon prayer, mainly because these hours were linked to a commemoration
of the events of the Lord's passion and of the first preaching of the Gospel.
76. Vatican Council II decreed that these lesser hours are to be retained in
The liturgical practice of saying these three hours is to be retained, without
prejudice to particular law, by those who live the contemplative life. It is
recommended also for all, especially those who take part in retreats or pastoral
77. Outside choir, without prejudice to particular law, it is permitted to
choose from the three hours the one most appropriate to the time of day, so that
the tradition of prayer in the course of the day's work may be maintained.
78. Daytime prayer is so arranged as to take into account both those who recite
only one hour and those who are obliged, or desire, to say all three hours.
79. The daytime hours begin with the introductory verse, God come to my
assistance with the Glory to the Father, As it was in the beginning, and the
Alleluia (omitted in Lent).
Then a hymn appropriate to the hour is sung. The psalmody is next, then the
reading, followed by the verse. The hour concludes with the prayer and, at least
in recitation in common, with the acclamation, Let us praise the Lord. R. And
give him thanks.
80. Different hymns and prayers are given for each of the hours so that, in
keeping with tradition, they may correspond to the true time of day and thus
sanctify it in a more pointed way. Those who recite only one hour should
therefore choose the texts that correspond to the true time of day.
In addition, the readings and prayers vary in keeping with the character of the
day, the season, or the feast.
81. Two psalmodies are provided: the current psalmody and the complementary
psalmody. Those who pray one hour should use the current psalmody. Those who
pray more than one hour should use the current psalmody at one hour and the
complementary psalmody at the others.
82. The current psalmody consists of three psalms (or parts in the case of
longer psalms) from the psalter, with their antiphons, unless directions are
given to the contrary.
On solemnities, the Easter triduum, and days within the octave of Easter, proper
antiphons are said with three psalms chosen from the complementary psalmody,
unless special psalms are to be used or the celebration falls on a Sunday, when
the psalms are those from the Sunday of Week I of the psalter.
83. The complementary psalter consists of three sets of three psalms, chosen as
a rule from the Gradual Psalms.
VI. NIGHT PRAYER
84. Night prayer is the last prayer of the day, said before retiring, even if
that is after midnight.
85. Night prayer begins like the other hours, with the verse, God, come to my
assistance, the Glory to the Father, As it was in the beginning, and the
Alleluia (omitted in Lent).
86. It is a laudable practice to have next an examination of conscience; in a
celebration in common this takes place in silence or as part of a penitential
rite based on the formularies in the Roman Missal.
87. The appropriate hymn follows.
88. After evening prayer I of Sunday the psalmody consists of Ps 4 and Ps 134;
after evening prayer II of Sunday it consists of Ps 91.
On the other days psalms are chosen that are full of confidence in the Lord; it
is permissible to use the Sunday psalms instead, especially for the convenience
of those who may wish to pray night prayer from memory.
89. After the psalmody there is a reading, followed by the responsory, Into your
hands. Then, as a climax to the whole hour, the Canticle of Simeon, Lord, now
you let your servant go in peace follows, with its antiphon.
90. The concluding prayer then follows, as it appears in the psalter.
91. After the prayer the blessing, May the all-powerful Lord is used, even in
92. Finally, one of the antiphons in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary is said.
In the Easter season this is always to be the Regina caeli. In addition to the
antiphons given in The Liturgy of the Hours, others may be approved by the
conferences of bishops. 
VII. COMBINING THE HOURS WITH MASS OR WITH EACH OTHER
93. In particular cases, if circumstances require, it is possible to link an
hour more closely with Mass when there is a celebration of the liturgy of the
hours in public or in common, according to the norms that follow, provided the
Mass and the hour belong to one and the same office. Care must be taken,
however, that this does not result in harm to pastoral work, especially on
94. When morning prayer, celebrated in choir or in common, comes immediately
before Mass, the whole celebration may begin either with the introductory verse
and hymn of morning prayer, especially on weekdays, or with the entrance song,
procession, and celebrant's greeting, especially on Sundays and holydays; one of
the introductory rites is thus omitted.
The psalmody of morning prayer follows as usual, up to, but excluding, the
reading. After the psalmody the penitential rite is omitted and, as
circumstances suggest, the Kyrie; the Gloria then follows, if required by the
rubrics, and the celebrant says the opening prayer of the Mass. The liturgy of
the word follows as usual.
The general intercessions are made in the place and form customary at Mass. But
on weekdays, at Mass in the morning, the intercessions of morning prayer may
replace the daily form of the general intercessions at Mass.
After the communion with its communion song the Canticle of Zechariah, Blessed
be the Lord, with its antiphon from morning prayer, is sung. Then follow the
prayer after communion and the rest as usual.
95. If public celebration of a daytime hour, whichever corresponds to the time
of day, is immediately followed by Mass, the whole celebration may begin in the
same way, either with the introductory verse and hymn for the hour, especially
on weekdays, or with the entrance song, procession, and celebrant's greeting,
especially on Sundays and holydays; one of the introductory rites is thus
The psalmody of the hour follows as usual up to, but excluding, the reading.
After the psalmody the penitential rite is omitted and, as circumstances
suggest, the Kyrie; the Gloria then follows, if required by the rubrics, and the
celebrant says the opening prayer of the Mass.
96. Evening prayer, celebrated immediately before Mass, is joined to it in the
same way as morning prayer. Evening prayer I of solemnities, Sundays, or feasts
of the Lord falling on Sundays may not be celebrated until after Mass of the
preceding day or Saturday.
97. When a daytime hour or evening prayer follows Mass, the Mass is celebrated
in the usual way up to and including the prayer after communion.
When the prayer after communion has been said, the psalmody of the hour begins
without introduction. At the daytime hour, after the psalmody the short reading
is omitted and the prayer is said at once and the dismissal takes place as at
Mass. At evening prayer, after the psalmody the short reading is omitted and
the Canticle of Mary with its antiphon follows at once; the intercessions and
the Lord's Prayer are omitted; the concluding prayer follows, then the blessing
of the congregation.
98. Apart from Christmas eve, the combining of Mass with the office of readings
is normally excluded, since the Mass already has its own cycle of readings, to
be kept distinct from any other. But if by way of exception, it should be
necessary to join the two, then immediately after the second reading from the
office, with its responsory, the rest is omitted and the Mass begins with the
Gloria, if it is called for; otherwise the Mass begins with the opening prayer.
99. If the office of readings comes immediately before another hour of the
office, then the appropriate hymn for that hour may be sung at the beginning of
the office of readings. At the end of the office of readings the prayer and
conclusion are omitted and in the hour following the introductory verse with the
Glory to the Father is omitted.
DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN THE LITURGY OF THE HOURS
I. PSALMS AND THEIR CONNECTION WITH CHRISTIAN PRAYER
100. In the liturgy of the hours the Church in large measure prays through the
magnificent songs that the Old Testament authors composed under the inspiration
of the Holy Spirit. The origin of these verses gives them great power to raise
the mind to God, to inspire devotion, to evoke gratitude in times of favor, and
to bring consolation and courage in times of trial.
101. The psalms, however, are only a foreshadowing of the fullness of time that
came to pass in Christ the Lord and that is the source of the power of the
Church's prayer. Hence, while the Christian people are all agreed on the supreme
value to be placed on the psalms, they can sometimes experience difficulty in
making this inspired poetry their own prayer.
102. Yet the Holy Spirit, under whose inspiration the psalms were written, is
always present by his grace to those believers who use them with good will. But
more is necessary: the faithful must "improve their understanding of the Bible,
especially of the psalms,"  according to their individual capacity, so that
they may understand how and by what method they can truly pray through the
103. The psalms are not readings or prose prayers, but poems of praise. They can
on occasion be recited as readings, but from their literary genre they are
properly called Tehillim ("songs of praise") in Hebrew and psalmoi ("songs to be
sung to the lyre") in Greek. In fact, all the psalms have a musical quality that
determines their correct style of delivery. Thus even when a psalm is recited
and not sung or is said silently in private, its musical character should govern
its use. A psalm does present a text to the minds of the people, but its aim is
to move the heart of those singing it or listening to it and also of those
accompanying it "on the lyre and harp."
104. To sing the psalms with understanding, then, is to meditate on them verse
by verse, with the heart always ready to respond in the way the Holy Spirit
The one who inspired the psalmist will also be present to those who in faith and
love are ready to receive his grace. For this reason the singing of psalms,
though it demands the reverence owed to God's majesty, should be the expression
of a joyful spirit and a loving heart, in keeping with their character as sacred
poetry and divine song and above all with the freedom of the children of God.
105. Often the words of a psalm help us to pray with greater ease and fervor,
whether in thanksgiving and joyful praise of God or in prayer for help in the
throes of suffering. But difficulties may arise, especially when the psalm is
not addressed directly to God. The psalmist is a poet and often addresses the
people as he recalls Israel's history; sometimes he addresses others, including
subrational creatures. He even represents the words as being spoken by God
himself and individual people, including, as in Ps 2, God's enemies. This shows
that a psalm is a different kind of prayer from a prayer or collect composed by
the Church. Moreover, it is in keeping with the poetic and musical character of
the psalms that they do not necessarily address God but are sung in God's
presence. Thus St. Benedict's instruction: "Let us reflect on what it means to
be in the sight of God and his angels, and let us so stand in his presence that
our minds are in harmony with our voices." 
106. In praying the psalms we should open our hearts to the different attitudes
they express, varying with the literary genre to which each belongs (psalms of
grief, trust, gratitude, etc.) and to which biblical scholars rightly attach
107. Staying close to the meaning of the words, the person who prays the psalms
looks for the significance of the text for the human life of the believer.
It is clear that each psalm was written in its own individual circumstances,
which the titles given for each psalm in the Hebrew psalter are meant to
indicate. But whatever its historical origin, each psalm has its own meaning,
which we cannot overlook even in our own day. Though the psalms originated very
many centuries ago among an Eastern people, they express accurately the pain and
hope, the unhappiness and trust of people of every age and country, and sing
above all of faith in God, of revelation, and of redemption.
108. Those who pray the psalms in the liturgy of the hours do so not so much in
their own name as in the name of the entire Body of Christ. This consideration
does away with the problem of a possible discrepancy between personal feelings
and the sentiments a psalm is expressing: for example, when a person feels sad
and the psalm is one of joy or when a person feels happy and the psalm is one of
mourning. Such a problem is readily solved in private prayer, which allows for
the choice of a psalm suited to personal feelings. The divine office, however,
is not private; the cycle of psalms is public, in the name of the Church, even
for those who may be reciting an hour alone. Those who pray the psalms in the
name of the Church nevertheless can always find a reason for joy or sadness, for
the saying of the Apostle applies in this case also: "Rejoice with the joyful
and weep with those who weep" (Rom 12:15). In this way human frailty, wounded
by self-love, is healed in proportion to the love that makes the heart match the
voice that prays the psalms. 
109. Those who pray the psalms in the name of the Church should be aware of
their full sense (sensus plenus), especially their Messianic sense, which was
the reason for the Church's introduction of the psalter into its prayer. This
Messianic sense was fully revealed in the New Testament and indeed was affirmed
publicly by Christ the Lord in person when he said to the apostles: "All that is
written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be
fulfilled" (Lk 24:44). The best-known example of this Messianic sense is the
dialogue in Matthew's Gospel on the Messiah as Son of David and David's Lord,
 where Ps 110 is interpreted as Messianic.
Following this line of thought, the Fathers of the Church saw the whole psalter
as a prophecy of Christ and the Church and explained it in this sense; for the
same reason the psalms have been chosen for use in the liturgy. Though somewhat
contrived interpretations were at times proposed, in general the Fathers and the
liturgy itself had the right to hear in the singing of the psalms the voice of
Christ crying out to the Father or of the Father conversing with the Son;
indeed, they also recognized in the psalms the voice of the Church, the
apostles, and the martyrs. This method of interpretation also flourished in the
Middle Ages; in many manuscripts of the period the Christological meaning of
each psalm was set before those praying by means of the caption prefixed. A
Christological meaning is by no means confined to the recognized Messianic
psalms but is given also to many others. Some of these interpretations are
doubtless Christological only in an accommodated sense, but they have the
support of the Church's tradition.
On the great feasts especially, the choice of psalms is often based on their
Christological meaning and antiphons taken from these psalms are frequently used
to throw light on this meaning.
II. ANTIPHONS AND OTHER AIDS TO PRAYING THE PSALMS
110. In the Latin tradition of psalmody three elements have greatly contributed
to an understanding of the psalms and their use as Christian prayer: the
captions, the psalm-prayers, and in particular the antiphons.
111. In the psalter of The Liturgy of the Hours a caption is given for each
psalm to explain its meaning and its import for the personal life of the
believer. These captions are intended only as an aid to prayer. A quotation from
the New Testament or the Fathers of the Church is added to foster prayer in the
light of Christ's new revelation; it is an invitation to pray the psalms in
their Christological meaning.
112. Psalm-prayers for each psalm are given in the supplement to The Liturgy of
the Hours as an aid to understanding them in a predominantly Christian way. An
ancient tradition provides a model for their use: after the psalm a period of
silence is observed, then the prayer gives a resume and resolution of the
thoughts and aspirations of those praying the psalms.
113. Even when the liturgy of the hours is recited, not sung, each psalm retains
its own antiphon, which is also to be said in private recitation. The antiphons
help to bring out the literary genre of the psalm; they highlight some theme
that may otherwise not attract the attention it deserves; they suggest an
individual tone in a psalm, varying with different contexts: indeed, as long as
farfetched accommodated senses are avoided, antiphons are of great value in
helping toward an understanding of the typological meaning or the meaning
appropriate to the feast; they can also add pleasure and variety to the
recitation of the psalms.
114. The antiphons in the psalter have been designed to lend themselves to
vernacular translation and to repetition after each strophe, in accordance with
When the office of Ordinary Time is recited, not sung, the quotations printed
with the psalms may be used in place of these antiphons (see no. 111).
115. When a psalm may be divided because of its length into several sections
within one and the same hour, an antiphon is given for each section. This is to
provide variety, especially when the hour is sung, and also to help toward a
better understanding of the riches of the psalm. Still, it is permissible to say
or sing the complete psalm without interruption, using only the first antiphon.
116. Proper antiphons are given for each of the psalms of morning prayer and
evening prayer during the Easter triduum, on the days within the octaves of
Easter and Christmas, on the Sundays of the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent,
and Easter, on the weekdays of Holy Week and the Easter season, and from the
17th to the 24th of December.
117. On solemnities proper antiphons are given for the office of readings,
morning prayer, the daytime hours, and evening prayer; if not, the antiphons are
taken from the common. On feasts the same applies to the office of readings and
to morning prayer and evening prayer.
118. Any memorials of the saints that have proper antiphons retain them (see no.
119. The antiphons for the Canticles of Zechariah and of Mary are taken, during
Ordinary Time, from the Proper of Seasons, if they are given there; if not, they
are taken from the current week and day of the psalter. On solemnities and
feasts they are taken from the proper if they are given there; if not, they are
taken from the common. On memorials without proper antiphons the antiphon may be
taken at will either from the common or from the current week.
120. During the Easter season Alleluia is added to all antiphons, unless it
would clash with the meaning of a particular antiphon.
III. WAYS OF SINGING THE PSALMS
121. Different psalms may be sung in different ways for a fuller grasp of their
spiritual meaning and beauty. The choice of ways is dictated by the literary
genre or length of each psalm, by the language used, whether Latin or the
vernacular, and especially by the kind of celebration, whether individual, with
a group, or with a congregation. The reason for using psalms is not the
establishment of a fixed amount of prayer but their own variety and the
character proper to each.
122. The psalms are sung or said in one of three ways, according to the
different usages established in tradition or experience: directly (in diredum),
that is, all sing the entire psalm, or antiphonally, that is, two choirs or
sections of the congregation sing alternate verses or strophes, or
123. At the beginning of each psalm its own antiphon is always to be recited, as
noted in nos. 113-120. At the end of the psalm the practice of concluding with
the Glory to the Father and As it was in the beginning is retained. This is the
fitting conclusion endorsed by tradition and it gives to Old Testament prayer a
note of praise and a Christological and Trinitarian sense. The antiphon may be
repeated at the end of the psalm.
124. When longer psalms occur, sections are marked in the psalter that divide
the parts in such a way as to keep the threefold structure of the hour; but
great care has been taken not to distort the meaning of the psalm.
It is useful to observe this division, especially in a choral celebration in
Latin; the Glory to the Father is added at the end of each section.
It is permissible, however, either to keep this traditional way or to pause
between the different sections of the same psalm or to recite the whole psalm
and its antiphon as a single unit without a break.
125. In addition, when the literary genre of a psalm suggests it, the divisions
into strophes are marked in order that, especially when the psalm is sung in the
vernacular, the antiphons may be repeated after each strophe; in this case the
Glory to the Father need be said only at the end of the psalm.
IV. PLAN FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PSALMS IN THE OFFICE
126. The psalms are distributed over a four-week cycle in such a way that very
few psalms are omitted, while some, traditionally more important, occur more
frequently than others; morning prayer and evening prayer as well as night
prayer have been assigned psalms appropriate to these hours. 
127. Since morning prayer and evening prayer are particularly designed for
celebration with a congregation, the psalms chosen for them are those more
suited to this purpose.
128. For night prayer the norm given in no. 88 has been followed.
129. For Sunday, including its office of readings and daytime prayer, the psalms
chosen are those that tradition has particularly singled out as expressions of
the paschal mystery. Certain psalms of a penitential character or connected with
the passion are assigned to Friday.
130. Three psalms (78, 105, and 106) are reserved for the seasons of Advent,
Christmas, Lent, and Easter, because they throw a special light on the Old
Testament history of salvation as the forerunner of its fulfillment in the New.
131. Three psalms (58, 83, and 109) have been omitted from the psalter cycle
because of their curses; in the same way, some verses have been omitted from
certain psalms, as noted at the head of each. The reason for the omission is a
certain psychological difficulty, even though the psalms of imprecation are in
fact used as prayer in the New Testament, for example, Rv 6:10, and in no sense
to encourage the use of curses.
132. Psalms too long to be included in one hour of the office are assigned to
the same hour on different days so that they may be recited in full by those who
do not usually say other hours. Thus Ps 119 is divided in keeping with its own
internal structure and is spread over twenty-two days during daytime prayer,
because tradition has assigned it to the day hours.
133. The four-week cycle of the psalter is coordinated with the liturgical year
in such a way that on the First Sunday of Advent, the First Sunday in Ordinary
Time, the First Sunday of Lent, and Easter Sunday the cycle is always begun
again with Week I (others being omitted when necessary).
After Pentecost, when the psalter cycle follows the series of weeks in Ordinary
Time, it ' begins with the week indicated in the Proper of Seasons at the
beginning of the appropriate week in Ordinary Time.
134. On solemnities and feasts, during the Easter triduum, and on the days
within the octaves of Easter and Christmas, proper psalms are assigned to the
office of readings from those with a tradition of use at these times and their
relevance is generally highlighted by the choice of antiphon. This is also the
case at daytime prayer on certain solemnities of the Lord and during the octave
of Easter. At morning prayer the psalms and canticle are taken from the Sunday
of the Week I of the psalter. On solemnities the psalms at evening prayer I are
taken from the Laudate Psalms, following an ancient custom. At evening prayer II
on solemnities and at evening prayer on feasts the psalms and canticle are
proper. At daytime prayer on solemnities (except those already mentioned and
those falling on Sunday) the psalms are taken from the Gradual Psalms; at
daytime prayer on feasts the psalms are those of the current week and day of the
135. In all other cases the psalms are taken from the current week and day of
the psalter, unless there are proper antiphons or proper psalms.
V. CANTICLES FROM THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS
136. At morning prayer between the first and the second psalm a canticle from
the Old Testament is inserted, in accordance with custom. In addition to the
series handed down from the ancient Roman tradition and the other series
introduced into the breviary by St. Pius X, several other canticles have been
added to the psalter from different books of the Old Testament, in order that
each weekday of the four-week cycle may have its own proper canticle and on
Sunday the two sections of the Canticle of the Three Children may be alternated.
137. At evening prayer, after the two psalms, a canticle of the New Testament is
inserted, from the letters of the apostles or the Book of Revelation. Seven
canticles are given for each week of the four-week cycle, one for each day. On
the Sundays of Lent, however, in place of the Alleluia Canticle from the Book of
Revelation, the canticle is from the First Letter of Peter. In addition, on the
solemnity of the Epiphany and the feast of the Transfiguration the canticle is
from the First Letter to Timothy; this is indicated in those offices.
138. The gospel Canticles of Zechariah, of Mary, and of Simeon are to be treated
with the same solemnity and dignity as are customary at the proclamation of the
139. Both psalmody and readings are arranged in keeping with the received rule
of tradition that the Old Testament is read first, then the writings of the
apostles, and finally the gospel.
VI. READINGS FROM SACRED SCRIPTURE
A. READING OF SACRED SCRIPTURE IN GENERAL
140. The reading of sacred Scripture, which, following an ancient tradition,
takes place publicly in the liturgy, is to have special importance for all
Christians, not only in the celebration of the eucharist but also in the divine
office. The reason is that this reading is not the result of individual choice
or devotion but is the planned decision of the Church itself, in order that in
the course of the year the Bride of Christ may unfold the mystery of Christ
"from his incarnation and birth until his ascension, the day of Pentecost, and
the expectation of blessed hope and of the Lord's return."  In addition, the
reading of sacred Scripture in the liturgical celebration is always accompanied
by prayer in order that the reading may have greater effect and that, in turn,
prayer - especially the praying of the psalms - may gain fuller understanding
and become more fervent and devout because of the reading.
141. In the liturgy of the hours there is a longer reading of sacred Scripture
and a shorter reading.
142. The longer reading, optional at morning prayer and evening prayer, is
described in no. 46.
B. CYCLE OF SCRIPTURE READINGS IN THE OFFICE OF READINGS
143. The cycle of readings from sacred Scripture in the office of readings takes
into account both those special seasons during which by an ancient tradition
particular books are to be read and the cycle of readings at Mass. The liturgy
of the hours is thus coordinated with the Mass in such a way that the scriptural
readings in the office complement the readings at Mass and so provide a complete
view of the history of salvation.
144. Without prejudice to the exception noted in no. 73, there are no readings
from the Gospel in the liturgy of the hours, since in the Mass each year the
Gospel is read in its entirety.
145. There are two cycles of biblical readings. The first is a one-year cycle
and is incorporated into The Liturgy of the Hours; the second, given in the
supplement for optional use, is a two-year cycle, like the cycle of readings at
weekday Masses in Ordinary Time.
146. The two-year cycle of readings for the liturgy of the hours is so arranged
that each year there are readings from nearly all the books of sacred Scripture
as well as longer and more difficult texts that are not suitable for inclusion
in the Mass. The New Testament as a whole is read each year, partly in the Mass,
partly in the liturgy of the hours; but for the Old Testament books a selection
has been made of those parts that are of greater importance for the
understanding of the history of salvation and for deepening devotion.
The complementarity between the readings in the liturgy of the hours and in the
Mass in no way assigns the same texts to the same days or spreads the same books
over the same seasons. This would leave the liturgy of the hours with the less
important passages and upset the sequence of texts. Rather this complementarity
necessarily demands that the same book be used in the Mass and in the liturgy of
the hours in alternate years or that, if it is read in the same year, there be
some interval in between.
147. During Advent, following an ancient tradition, passages are read from
Isaiah in a semicontinuous sequence, alternating in a two-year cycle. In
addition, the Book of Ruth and certain prophecies from Micah are read. Since
there are special readings from 17 to 24 December (both dates included),
readings for the Third Week of Advent which fall on these dates are omitted.
148. From 29 December until 5 January the readings for Year I are taken from the
Letter to the Colossians (which considers the incarnation of the Lord within the
context of the whole history of salvation) and the readings for Year II are
taken from the Song of Songs (which foreshadows the union of God and humanity in
Christ): "God the Father prepared a wedding feast for God his Son when he united
him with human nature in the womb of the Virgin, when he who is God before all
ages willed that his Son should become man at the end of the ages. 
149. From 7 January until the Saturday after the Epiphany the readings are
eschatological texts from Isaiah 60-66 and Baruch. Readings remaining unused are
omitted for that year.
150. During Lent the readings for the first year are passages from Deuteronomy
and the Letter to the Hebrews. Those for the second year review the history of
salvation from Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. The Letter to the Hebrews
interprets the Old Covenant in the light of the paschal mystery of Christ. A
passage from the same letter, on Christ's sacrifice (Heb 9:11-28), is read on
Good Friday; another, on the Lord's rest (Heb 4:1-16), is read on Holy Saturday.
On the other days of Holy Week the readings in Year I are the third and fourth
Songs of the Servant of the Lord and extracts from Lamentations; in Year II the
prophet Jeremiah is read, as a type of Christ in his passion.
151. During the Easter season, apart from the First and Second Sundays of Easter
and the solemnities of the Ascension and Pentecost, there are the traditional
readings from the First Letter of Peter, the Book of Revelation, and the Letters
of John (for Year 1), and from the Acts of the Apostles (for Year II).
152. From the Monday after the feast of the Baptism of the Lord until Lent and
from the Monday after Pentecost until Advent there is a continuous series of
thirty-four weeks in Ordinary Time.
This series is interrupted from Ash Wednesday until Pentecost. On the Monday
after Pentecost Sunday the cycle of readings in Ordinary Time is resumed,
beginning with the week after the one interrupted because of Lent; the reading
assigned to the Sunday is omitted.
In years with only thirty-three weeks in Ordinary Time, the week immediately
following Pentecost is dropped, in order to retain the readings of the last
weeks which are eschatological readings.
The books of the Old Testament are arranged so as to follow the history of
salvation: God reveals himself in the history of his people as he leads and
enlightens them in progressive stages. This is why prophetic books are read
along with the historical books, but with due consideration of the period in
which the prophets lived and taught. Hence, the cycle of readings from the Old
Testament contains, in Year I, the historical books and prophetic utterances
from the Book of Joshua as far as, and including, the time of the exile. In Year
II, after the readings from Genesis (read before Lent), the history of salvation
is resumed after the exile up to the time of the Maccabees. Year II includes the
later prophets, the wisdom literature, and the narratives in Esther, Tobit, and
The letters of the apostles not read at special times are distributed through
the year in a way that takes into account the readings at Mass and the
chronological order in which these letters were written.
153. The one-year cycle is shortened in such a way that each year special
passages from sacred Scripture are read, but in correlation with the two-year
cycle of readings at Mass, to which it is intended to be complementary.
154. Proper readings are assigned for solemnities and feasts; otherwise the
readings are taken from the respective Common of Saints.
155. As far as possible, each passage read keeps to a certain unity. In order
therefore to strike a balance in length (otherwise difficult to achieve in view
of the different literary genres of the books), some verses are occasionally
omitted, though omissions are always noted. But it is permissible and
commendable to read the complete passage from an approved text.
C. SHORT READINGS
156. The short readings or "chapters" (capitula) are referred to in no. 45,
which describes their importance in the liturgy of the hours. They have been
chosen to give clear and concise expression to a theme or an exhortation. Care
has also been taken to ensure variety.
157. Accordingly, four weekly series of short readings have been composed for
Ordinary Time. They are incorporated into the psalter in such a way that the
reading changes during the four weeks. There are also weekly series for the
seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent, and Easter, In addition there are proper
short readings for solemnities, feasts, and some memorials, as well as a
one-week series for night prayer.
158. The following determined the choice of short readings:
a. in accordance with tradition, exclusion of the Gospels;
b. respect for the special character of Sunday, or even of Friday, and of the
c. use only of the New Testament for the readings at evening prayer, following
as they do a New Testament canticle.
VII. READINGS FROM THE FATHERS AND CHURCH WRITERS
159. In keeping with the tradition of the Roman Church the office of readings
has, after the biblical reading, a reading from the Fathers or church writers,
with a responsory, unless there is to be a reading relating to a saint (see nos.
160. Texts for this reading are given from the writings of the Fathers and
doctors of the Church and from other ecclesiastical writers of the Eastern and
Western Church. Pride of place is given to the Fathers because of their
distinctive authority in the Church.
161. In addition to the readings that The Liturgy of the Hours assigns to each
day, the optional lectionary supplies a larger collection, in order that the
treasures of the Church's tradition may be more widely available to those who
pray the liturgy of the hours. Everyone is free to take the second reading
either from The Liturgy of the Hours or from the optional lectionary.
162. Further the conferences of bishops may prepare additional texts adapted to
the traditions and culture of their own region,  for inclusion in the
optional lectionary as a supplement. These texts are to be taken from the works
of Catholic writers, outstanding for their teaching and holiness of life.
163. The purpose of the second reading is principally to provide for meditation
on the word of God as received by the Church in its tradition. The Church has
always been convinced of the need to teach the word of God authentically to
believers, so that "the line of interpretation regarding the prophets and
apostles may be guided by an ecclesial and catholic understanding." 
164. By constant use of the writings handed down by the universal tradition of
the Church, those who read them are led to a deeper reflection on sacred
Scripture and to a relish and love for it. The writings of the Fathers are an
outstanding witness to the contemplation of the word of God over the centuries
by the Bride of the incarnate Word: the Church, "possessing the counsel and
spirit of its Bridegroom and God,"  is always seeking to attain a more
profound understanding of the sacred Scriptures.
165. The reading of the Fathers leads Christians to an understanding also of the
liturgical seasons and feasts. In addition, it gives them access to the
priceless spiritual treasures that form the unique patrimony of the Church and
provide a firm foundation for the spiritual life and a rich source for
increasing devotion. Preachers of God's word also have at hand each day superb
examples of sacred preaching.
VIII. READINGS IN HONOR OF SAINTS
166. The "hagiographical" readings or readings in honor of saints are either
texts from a Father of the Church or another ecclesiastical writer, referring
specifically or rightly applicable to the saint being commemorated, or the
readings are texts from the saint's own writings, or are biographical.
167. Those who compose particular propers for saints must ensure historical
accuracy  as well as genuine spiritual benefit for those who will read or
hear the readings about the saints. Anything that merely excites amazement
should be carefully avoided. Emphasis should be given to the individual
spiritual characteristics of the saints, in a way suited to modern conditions;
stress should also be laid on their contribution to the life and spirituality of
168. A short biographical note, simply giving historical facts and a brief
sketch of the saint's life, is provided at the head of the reading. This is for
information only and is not for reading aloud.
169. Its responsory follows the biblical reading in the office of readings. The
text of this responsory has been drawn from traditional sources or freshly
composed, in order to throw new light on the passage just read, put it in the
context of the history of salvation, lead from the Old Testament to the New,
turn what has been read into prayer and contemplation, or provide pleasant
variety by its poetic beauty.
170. A pertinent responsory also follows the second reading. It is less closely
linked with the text of the reading, however, and thus makes for a greater
freedom in meditation.
171. The responsories and the portions to be repeated even in private recitation
therefore retain their value. The customary reprise of the whole responsory may
be omitted when the office is not being sung, unless the sense requires this
172. In a similar but simpler way, the responsory at morning prayer, evening
prayer, and night prayer (see nos. 49 and 89), and the verse at daytime prayer,
are linked to the short reading as a kind of acclamation, enabling God's word to
enter more deeply into the mind and heart of the one listening or reading.
X. HYMNS AND OTHER NONBIBLICAL SONGS
173. A very ancient tradition gives hymns the place in the office that they
still retain.  By their mystical and poetic character they are specifically
designed for God's praise. But they also are an element for the people; in fact
more often than the other parts of the office the hymns bring out the proper
theme of individual hours or feasts and incline and draw the spirit to a devout
celebration. The beauty of their language often adds to this power. Furthermore,
in the office hymns are the main poetic element created by the Church.
174. A hymn follows the traditional rule of ending with a doxology, usually
addressed to the same divine person as the hymn itself.
175. In the office for Ordinary Time, to ensure variety, a twofold cycle of
hymns is given for each hour, for use in alternate weeks.
176. In addition, a twofold cycle of hymns has been introduced into the office
of readings for Ordinary Time, one for use at night and the other for use during
177. New hymns can be set to traditional melodies of the same rhythm and meter.
178. For vernacular celebration, the conferences of bishops may adapt the Latin
hymns to suit the character of their own language and introduce fresh
compositions,  provided these are in complete harmony with the spirit of the
hour, season, or feast. Great care must be taken not to allow popular songs that
have no artistic merit and are not in keeping with the dignity of the liturgy.
XI. INTERCESSIONS, LORD'S PRAYER, AND CONCLUDING PRAYER
A. THE PRAYERS OR INTERCESSIONS AT MORNING PRAYER AND EVENING PRAYER
179. The liturgy of the hours is a celebration in praise of God. Yet Jewish and
Christian tradition does not separate prayer of petition from praise of God;
often enough, praise turns somehow to petition. The Apostle Paul exhorts us to
offer prayers, petitions, intercessions, and thanksgiving for all: for kings and
all in authority, so that we may be able to live quiet and peaceful lives in all
reverence and decency, for this is good and acceptable before God our Savior,
who wishes all to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth" (I Tm
2:1-4). The Fathers of the Church frequently explained this as an exhortation to
offer prayer in the morning and in the evening. 
180. The general intercessions, restored in the Mass of the Roman Rite, have
their place also at evening prayer, though in a different fashion, as will be
181. Since traditionally morning prayer puts the whole day in God's hands, there
are invocations at morning prayer for the purpose of commending or consecrating
the day to God.
182. The word preces covers both the intercessions at evening prayer and the
invocations for dedicating the day to God at morning prayer.
183. In the interest of variety and especially of giving fuller expression to
the many needs of the Church and of all people in relation to different states
of life, groups, persons, circumstances, and seasons, different intercessory
formularies are given for each day of the four-week psalter in Ordinary Time and
for the special seasons of the liturgical year, as well as for certain feasts.
184. In addition, the conferences of bishops have the right to adapt the
formularies given in the book of the liturgy of the hours and also to approve
new ones,  in accordance with the norms that follow.
185. As in the Lord's Prayer, petitions should be linked with praise of God and
acknowledgment of his glory or with a reference to the history of salvation.
186. In the intercessions at evening prayer the last intention is always for the
187. Since the liturgy of the hours is above all the prayer of the whole Church
for the whole Church, indeed for the salvation of the whole world, 
universal intentions should take precedence over all others, namely, for: the
Church and its ministers; secular authorities; the poor, the sick, and the
sorrowful; the needs of the whole world, that is, peace and other intentions of
188. It is permissible, however, to include particular intentions at both
morning prayer and evening prayer.
189. The intercessions in the office are so arranged that they can be adapted
for celebration with a congregation or in a small community or for private
190. The intercessions in a celebration with a congregation or in common are
thus introduced by a brief invitation, given by the priest or minister and
designating the single response that the congregation is to repeat after each
191. Further, the intentions are phrased as direct addresses to God and thus are
suitable for both common celebration and private recitation.
192. Each intention consists of two parts; the second may be used as an
193. Different methods can therefore be used for the intercessions. The priest
or minister may say both parts of the intention and the congregation respond
with a uniform response or a silent pause, or the priest or minister may say
only the first part of the intention and the congregation respond with the
B. LORD'S PRAYER
194. In accord with ancient tradition, the Lord's Prayer has a place suited to
its dignity, namely, after the intercessions at morning prayer and evening
prayer, the hours most often celebrated with the people.
195. Henceforth, therefore, the Lord's Prayer will be said with solemnity on
three occasions during the day: at Mass, at morning prayer, and at evening
196. The Lord's Prayer is said by all after a brief introduction, if this seems
C. CONCLUDING PRAYER
197. The concluding prayer at the end marks the completion of an entire hour. In
a celebration in public and with a congregation, it belongs by tradition to a
priest or deacon to say this prayer. 
198. In the office of readings, this prayer is as a rule the prayer proper to
the day. At night prayer, the prayer is always the prayer given in the psalter
for that hour.
199. The concluding prayer at morning prayer and evening prayer is taken from
the proper on Sundays, on the weekdays of the seasons of Advent, Christmas,
Lent, and Easter, and on solemnities, feasts, and memorials. On weekdays in
Ordinary Time the prayer is the one given in the four-week psalter to express
the character of these two hours.
200. The concluding prayer at daytime prayer is taken from the proper on
Sundays, on the weekdays of the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent, and Easter,
and on solemnities and feasts. On other days the prayers are those that express
the character of the particular hour. These are given in the four-week psalter.
XII. SACRED SILENCE
201. It is a general principle that care should be taken in liturgical services
to see that "at the proper times all observe a reverent silence."  An
opportunity for silence should therefore be provided in the celebration of the
liturgy of the hours.
202. In order to receive in our hearts the full sound of the voice of the Holy
Spirit and to unite our personal prayer more closely with the word of God and
the public voice of the Church, it is permissible, as occasion offers and
prudence suggests, to have an interval of silence. It may come either after the
repetition of the antiphon at the end of the psalm, in the traditional way,
especially if the psalm-prayer is to be said after the pause (see no. 112), or
after the short or longer readings, either before or after the responsory.
Care must be taken to avoid the kind of silence that would disturb the structure
of the office or annoy and weary those taking part.
203. In individual recitation there is even greater freedom to pause in
meditation on some text that moves the spirit; the office does not on this
account lose its public character.
VARIOUS CELEBRATIONS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR
I. MYSTERIES OF THE LORD
204. The office of Sunday begins with evening prayer I, which is taken entirely
from the four-week psalter, except those parts that are marked as proper.
205. When a feast of the Lord is celebrated on Sunday, it has a proper evening
206. The way to celebrate Sunday vigils, as circumstances suggest, has been
discussed in no. 73.
207. It is of great advantage to celebrate, when possible, at least evening
prayer with the people, in keeping with a very ancient tradition. 
B. EASTER TRIDUUM
208. For the Easter triduum the office is celebrated in the way set forth in the
Proper of Seasons.
209. Those who take part in the evening Mass of the Lord's Supper or the
celebration of the Lord's passion on Good Friday do not say evening prayer on
210. On Good Friday and Holy Saturday the office of readings should be
celebrated publicly with the people before morning prayer, as far as this is
211. Night prayer for Holy Saturday is said only by those who are not present at
the Easter Vigil.
212. The Easter Vigil takes the place of the office of readings. Those not
present at the solemn celebration of the Vigil should therefore read at least
four of its readings with the chants and prayers. It is desirable that these be
the readings from Exodus, Ezekiel, St. Paul, and from the Gospel. The Te Deum
follows, then the prayer of the day.
213. Morning prayer for Easter Sunday is said by all. It is fitting that evening
prayer be celebrated in a more solemn way to mark the ending of so holy a day
and to commemorate the occasions when the Lord showed himself to his disciples.
Great care should be taken to maintain, where it exists, the particular
tradition of celebrating evening prayer on Easter Sunday in honor of baptism.
During this there is a procession to the font as the psalms are being sung.
C. EASTER SEASON
214. The liturgy of the hours takes on a paschal character from the acclamation,
Alleluia that concludes most antiphons (see no. 120), from the hymns, antiphons,
and special intercessions, and from the proper readings assigned to each hour.
D. CHRISTMAS SEASON
215. On Christmas eve it is fitting that by means of the office of readings, a
solemn vigil be celebrated before Mass. Night prayer is not said by those
present at this vigil.
216. Morning prayer on Christmas Day is said as a rule before the Mass at Dawn.
E. OTHER SOLEMNITIES AND FEASTS OF THE LORD
217. In arranging the office for solemnities and feasts of the Lord, what is
said in nos. 225-233 should be observed, with any necessary changes.
II. THE SAINTS
218. The celebrations of the saints are arranged so that they do not take
precedence over those feast days and special seasons that commemorate the
mysteries of salvation.  Nor are they allowed to break up the sequence of
psalms and biblical readings or to give rise to undue repetitions. At the same
time, the plan makes proper provision for the rightful honoring of the
individual saints. These principles form the basis for the reform of the
calendar, carried out by order of Vatican Council 11, and for the plan for
celebrating the saints in the liturgy of the hours that is described in the
219. Celebrations in honor of the saints are either solemnities, feasts, or
220. Memorials are either obligatory memorials or, when not so classified,
optional memorials. In deciding on the merits of celebrating an optional
memorial in an office to be celebrated with the people or in common, account
should be taken of the general good or of the genuine devotion of the
congregation, not simply that of the person presiding.
221. When more than one optional memorial falls on the same day, only one may be
celebrated; the rest are omitted.
222. Only solemnities are transferred, in accordance with the rubrics.
223. The norms that follow apply to the saints entered in the General Roman
Calendar and to those with a place in particular calendars.
224. Where proper parts are not given, they are supplied from the respective
Common of Saints.
1. ARRANGEMENT OF THE OFFICE FOR SOLEMNITIES
225. Solemnities have an evening prayer I on the preceding day.
226. At evening prayer I and 11, the hymn, the antiphons, the short reading with
its responsory, and the concluding prayer are proper. Where anything proper is
missing, it is supplied from the common.
In keeping with an ancient tradition, at evening prayer I both psalms are as a
rule taken from the Laudate Psalms (Ps 113, 117, 135, 146, 147 A, 147 B). The
New Testament canticle is noted in its appropriate place. At evening prayer II
the psalms and canticles are proper; the intercessions are either proper or from
227. At morning prayer, the hymn, the antiphons, the short reading with its
responsory, and the concluding prayer are proper. Where anything proper is
missing, it is supplied from the common. The psalms are to be taken from the
Sunday of Week I of the four-week psalter; the intercessions are either proper
or from the common.
228. In the office of readings, everything is proper: the hymn, the antiphons
and psalms, the readings and the responsories. The first reading is from
Scripture; the second is about the saint. In the case of a saint with a purely
local cult and without special texts even in the local proper, everything is
taken from the common.
At the end of the office of readings the Te Deum and the proper prayer are said.
229. At daytime prayer, the hymn of the weekday is used, unless other directions
are given. The psalms are from the Gradual Psalms with a proper antiphon. On
Sundays the psalms are taken from the Sunday of Week I of the four-week psalter
and the short reading and concluding prayer are proper. But on certain
solemnities of the Lord there are special psalms.
230. At night prayer, everything is said as on Sundays, after evening prayer I
and II respectively.
2. ARRANGEMENT OF THE OFFICE FOR FEASTS
231. Feasts have no evening prayer 1, except those feasts of the Lord that fall
on a Sunday. At the office of readings, at morning prayer, and at evening
prayer, all is done as on solemnities.
232. At daytime prayer, the hymn of the weekday is used. The weekday psalms with
their antiphons are said, unless a special reason or tradition requires a proper
antiphon; this will be indicated as the case occurs. The reading and concluding
prayer are proper.
233. Night prayer is said as on ordinary days.
3. ARRANGEMENT OF THE OFFICE FOR MEMORIALS
234. In the arrangement of the office there is no difference between obligatory
and optional memorials, except in the case of optional memorials falling during
A. MEMORIALS DURING ORDINARY TIME
235. In the office of readings, at morning prayer, and at evening prayer:
a. the psalms and their antiphons are taken from the current week and day,
unless there are proper antiphons or proper psalms, which is indicated as the
b. the antiphon at the invitatory, the hymn, the short reading, the antiphons at
the Canticles of Zechariah and of Mary, and the intercessions must be those of
the saint if these are given in the proper; otherwise, they are taken either
from the common or from the current week and day;
c. the concluding prayer from the office of the saint is to be said;
d. in the office of readings, the Scripture reading with its responsory is from
the current cycle. The second reading is about the saint, with a proper
responsory or one taken from the common; if there is no proper reading, the
patristic reading for the day is used. The Te Deum is not said.
236. At daytime prayer and night prayer, all is from the weekday and nothing is
from the office of the saint.
B. MEMORIALS DURING PRIVILEGED SEASONS
237. On Sundays, solemnities, and feasts, on Ash Wednesday, during Holy Week,
and during the octave of Easter, memorials that happen to fall on these days are
238. On the weekdays from 17 to 24 December, during the octave of Christmas, and
on the weekdays of Lent, no obligatory memorials are celebrated, even in
particular calendars. When any happen to fall during Lent in a given year, they
are treated as optional memorials.
239. During privileged seasons, if it is desired to celebrate the office of a
saint on a day assigned to his or her memorial:
a. in the office of readings, after the patristic reading (with its responsory)
from the Proper of Seasons, a proper reading about the saint (with its
responsory) may follow, with the concluding prayer of the saint;
b. at morning prayer and evening prayer, the ending of the concluding prayer may
be omitted and the saint's antiphon (from the proper or common) and prayer may
C. MEMORIAL OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY ON SATURDAY
240. On Saturdays in Ordinary Time, when optional memorials are permitted, an
optional memorial of the Blessed Virgin Mary may be celebrated in the same way
as other memorials, with its own proper reading.
III. CALENDAR AND OPTION TO CHOOSE AN OFFICE OR PART OF AN OFFICE
A. CALENDAR To BE FOLLOWED
241. The office in choir and in common is to be celebrated according to the
proper calendar of the diocese, of the religious family, or of the individual
churches.  Members of religious institutes join with the community of the
local Church in celebrating the dedication of the cathedral and the feasts of
the principal patrons of the place and of the wider geographical region in which
they live. 
242. When clerics or religious who are obliged under any title to pray the
divine office join in an office celebrated in common according to a calendar or
rite different from their own, they fulfill their obligation in respect to the
part of the office at which they are present.
243. In private celebration, the calendar of the place or the person's own
calendar may be followed, except on proper solemnities and on proper feasts. 
B. OPTION TO CHOOSE AN OFFICE
244. On weekdays when an optional memorial is permitted, for a good reason the
office of a saint listed on that day in the Roman Martyrology, or in an approved
appendix to it, may be celebrated in the same way as other memorials (see nos.
245. For a public cause or out of devotion, except on solemnities, the Sundays
of the seasons of Advent, Lent, and Easter, Ash Wednesday, Holy Week, the octave
of Easter, and 2 November, a votive office may be celebrated, in whole or in
part: for example, on the occasion of a pilgrimage, a local feast, or the
external solemnity of a saint.
C. OPTION TO CHOOSE TEXTS
246. In certain particular cases there is an option to choose texts different
from those given for the day, provided there is no distortion of the general
arrangement of each hour and the rules that follow are respected.
247. In the office for Sundays, solemnities, feasts of the Lord listed in the
General Calendar, the weekdays of Lent and Holy Week, the days within the
octaves of Easter and Christmas, and the weekdays from 17 to 24 December
inclusive, it is never permissible to change the formularies that are proper or
adapted to the celebration, such as antiphons, hymns, readings, responsories,
prayers, and very often also the psalms.
In place of the Sunday psalms of the current week, there is an option to
substitute the Sunday psalms of a different week, and, in the case of an office
celebrated with a congregation, even other psalms especially chosen to lead the
people step by step to an understanding of the psalms.
248. In the office of readings, the current cycle of sacred Scripture must
always be respected. The Church's intent that "a more representative portion of
the holy Scriptures will be read to the people in the course of a prescribed
number of years"  applies also to the divine office.
Therefore the cycle of readings from Scripture that is provided in the office of
readings must not be set aside during the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent,
and Easter. 'During Ordinary Time, however, on a particular day or for a few
days in succession, it is permissible, for a good reason, to choose readings
from those provided on other days or even other biblical readings, for example,
on the occasion of retreats, pastoral gatherings, prayers for Christian unity,
or other such events.
249. When the continuous reading is interrupted because of a solemnity or feast
or special celebration, it is allowed during the same week, taking into account
the readings for the whole week, either to combine the parts omitted with others
or to decide which of the texts are to be preferred.
250. The office of readings also offers the option to choose, with a good
reason, another reading from the same season, taken from The Liturgy of the
Hours or the optional lectionary (no. 161), in preference to the second reading
appointed for the day. On weekdays in Ordinary Time and, if it seems opportune,
even in the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent, and Easter, the choice is open
for a semicontinuous reading of the work of a Father of the Church, in harmony
with the biblical and liturgical context.
251. The readings, prayers, songs, and intercessions appointed for the weekdays
of a particular season may be used on other weekdays of the same season.
252. Everyone should be concerned to respect the complete cycle of the four-week
psalter.  Still, for spiritual or pastoral advantage, the psalms appointed
for a particular day may be replaced with others from the same hour of a
different day. There are also circumstances occasionally arising when it is
permissible to choose suitable psalms and other texts in the way done for a
RITES FOR CELEBRATION IN COMMON
I. OFFICES TO BE CARRIED OUT
253. In the celebration of the liturgy of the hours, as in all other liturgical
services, "each one, minister or layperson, who has an office to perform, should
do all of, but only, those parts which pertain to that office by the nature of
the rite and the principles of liturgy." 
254. When a bishop presides, especially in the cathedral, he should be attended
by his college of priests and by ministers and the people should take a full and
active part. A priest or deacon should normally preside at every celebration
with a congregation and ministers should also be present.
255. The priest or deacon who presides at a celebration may wear a stole over
the alb or surplice; a priest may also wear a cope. On greater solemnities the
wearing of the cope by many priests or of the dalmatic by many deacons is
256. It belongs to the presiding priest or deacon, at the chair, to open the
celebration with the introductory verse, begin the Lord's Prayer, say the
concluding prayer, greet the people, bless them, and dismiss them.
257. Either the priest or a minister may lead the intercessions.
258. In the absence of a priest or deacon, the one who presides at the office is
only one among equals and does not enter the sanctuary or greet and bless the
259. Those who act as readers, standing in a convenient place, read either the
long readings or the short readings.
260, A cantor or cantors should intone the antiphons, psalms, and other chants.
With regard to the psalmody, the directions of nos. 121-125 should be followed.
261. During the gospel canticle at morning prayer and evening prayer there may
be an incensation of the altar, then of the priest and congregation.
262. The choral obligation applies to the community, not to the place of
celebration, which need not be a church, especially in the case of those hours
that are celebrated without solemnity.
263. All taking part stand during:
a. the introduction to the office and the introductory verses of each hour;
b. the hymn;
c. the gospel canticle;
d. the intercessions, the Lord's Prayer, and the concluding prayer.
264. All sit to listen to the readings, except the gospel.
265. The assembly either sits or stands, depending on custom, while the psalms
and other canticles (with their antiphons) are being said.
266. All make the sign of the cross, from forehead to breast and from left
shoulder to right, at:
a. the beginning of the hours, when God, come to my assistance is being said;
b. the beginning of the gospel, the Canticles of Zechariah, of Mary, and of
The sign of the cross is made on the mouth at the beginning of the invitatory,
at Lord, open my lips.
II. SINGING IN THE OFFICE
267. In the rubrics and norms of this Instruction, the words "say .. .. recite,"
etc., are to be understood to refer to either singing or recitation, in the
light of the principles that follow.
268. "The sung celebration of the divine office is more in keeping with the
nature of this prayer and a mark of both higher solemnity and closer union of
hearts in offering praise to God. . . . Therefore the singing of the office is
earnestly recommended to those who carry out the office in choir or in common."
269. The declarations of Vatican Council II on liturgical singing apply to all
liturgical services but in a special way to the liturgy of the hours.  Though
every part of it has been revised in such a way that all may be fruitfully
recited even by individuals, many of these parts are lyrical in form and do not
yield their fuller meaning unless they are sung, especially the psalms,
canticles, hymns, and responsories.
270. Hence, in celebrating the liturgy singing is not to be regarded as an
embellishment superimposed on prayer; rather, it wells up from the depths of a
soul intent on prayer and the praise of God and reveals in a full and complete
way the community nature of Christian worship.
Christian communities of all kinds seeking to use this form of prayer as
frequently as possible are to be commended. Clerics and religious, as well as
all the people of God, must be trained by suitable catechesis and practice to
join together in singing the hours in a spirit of joy, especially on Sundays and
holydays. But it is no easy task to sing the entire office; nor is the Church's
praise to be considered either by origin or by nature the exclusive possession
of clerics and monks but the property of the whole Christian community.
Therefore several principles must be kept simultaneously in mind if the sung
celebration of the liturgy of the hours is to be performed correctly and to
stand out in its true nature and splendor.
271. It is particularly appropriate that there be singing at least on Sundays
and holydays, so that the different degrees of solemnity will thus come to be
272. It is the same with the hours: all are not of equal importance; thus it is
desirable that those that are the true hinges of the office, that is, morning
prayer and evening prayer, should receive greater prominence through the use of
273. A celebration with singing throughout is commendable, provided it has
artistic and spiritual excellence; but it may be useful on occasion to apply the
principle of "progressive solemnity." There are practical reasons for this, as
well as the fact that in this way the various elements of liturgical celebration
are not treated indiscriminately, but each can again be given its connatural
meaning and genuine function. The liturgy of the hours is then not seen as a
beautiful memorial of the past demanding intact preservation as an object of
admiration; rather it is seen as open to constantly new forms of life and growth
and to being the unmistakable sign of a community's vibrant vitality.
The principle of "progressive solemnity" therefore is one that recognizes
several intermediate stages between singing the office in full and just reciting
all the parts. Its application offers the possibility of a rich and pleasing
variety. The criteria are the particular day or hour being celebrated, the
character of the individual elements comprising the office, the size and
composition of the community, as well as the number of singers available in the
With this increased range of variation, it is possible for the public praise of
the Church to be sung more frequently than formerly and to be adapted in a
variety of ways to different circumstances. There is also great hope that new
ways and expressions of public worship may be found for our own age, as has
clearly always happened in the life of the Church.
274. For liturgical celebrations sung in Latin, Gregorian chant, as the music
proper to the Roman liturgy, should have pride of place, all other things being
equal.  Nevertheless, "the Church does not exclude any type of sacred music
from liturgical services as long as the music matches the spirit of the service
itself and the character of the individual parts and is not a hindrance to the
required active participation of the people."  At a sung office, if a melody
is not available for the given antiphon, another antiphon should be taken from
those in the repertoire, provided it is suitable in terms of nos. 113 and
275. Since the liturgy of the hours may be celebrated in the vernacular,
"appropriate measures are to be taken to prepare melodies for use in the
vernacular singing of the divine office." 
276. But it is permissible to sing the various parts in different languages at
one and the same celebration. 
277. The decision on which parts to choose for singing follows from the
authentic structure of a liturgical celebration. This demands that the
significance and function of each part and of singing should be fully respected.
Some parts by their nature call for singing:  in particular, acclamations,
responses to the greetings of priest and ministers, responses in litanies, also
antiphons and psalms, the verses and reprises in responsories, hymns and
278. Clearly the psalms are closely bound up with music (see nos. 103-120), as
both Jewish and Christian tradition confirm. In fact a complete understanding of
many of the psalms is greatly assisted by singing them or at least not losing
sight of their poetic and musical character. Accordingly, whenever possible
singing the psalms should have preference, at least for the major days and hours
and in view of the character of the psalms themselves.
279. The different ways of reciting the psalms have been described in nos.
121-123. Varying these ways should depend not so much on external circumstances
as on the different genres of the psalms to be recited in the same celebration.
Thus the wisdom psalms and the narrative psalms are perhaps better listened to,
whereas psalms of praise and thanksgiving are of their nature designed for
singing in common. The main consideration is to ensure that the celebration is
not too inflexible or elaborate nor concerned merely with formal observance of
rules, but that it matches the reality of what is celebrated. The primary aim
must be to inspire hearts with a desire for genuine prayer and to show that the
celebration of God's praise is a thing of joy (see Ps 147).
280. Even when the hours are recited, hymns can nourish prayer, provided they
have doctrinal and literary excellence; but of their nature they are designed
for singing and so, as far as possible, at a celebration in common they should
281. The short responsory after the reading at morning prayer and evening prayer
(see no. 49) is of its nature designed for singing and indeed for congregational
282. The responsories following the readings in the office of readings by their
very nature and function also call for their being sung. In the plan of the
office, however, they are composed in such a way that they retain their power
even in individual and private recitation. Responsories set to simpler melodies
can be sung more frequently than those responsories drawn from the traditional
283. The longer readings and the short readings are not of themselves designed
for singing. When they are proclaimed, great care should be taken that the
reading is dignified, clear, and distinct and that it is really audible and
fully intelligible for all. The only acceptable melody for a reading is
therefore one that best ensures the hearing of the words and the understanding
of the text.
284. Texts that are said only by the person presiding, such as the concluding
prayer, can be sung gracefully and appropriately, especially in Latin. This,
however, will be more difficult in some languages, unless singing makes the
texts more clearly audible for all.
1) See Acts 1:14, 4:24, 12:5 and 12. See also Eph 5:19-21.
2) See Acts 2:1-15.
3) SC art. 83.
4) See Lk 3:21-22.
5) See Lk 6:12.
6) See Mt 14:19, 15:36; Mk 6:41, 8:7; Lk 9:16; Jn 6:11.
7) See Lk 9:28-29.
8) See Mk 7:34.
9) See Jn 11:41ff.
10) See Lk 9:18.
11) Lk 11:11.
12) See Mt 11:25.ff; Lk 10:21ff.
13) See Mt 19:13.
14) See Lk 22:32.
15) See Mk 1:35, 6:46; Lk 5:16. See also Mt 4:1 and par.; Mt 14:23.
16) See Mk 1:35.
17) See Mt 14:23 and 25; Mk 6:46 and 48.
18) See Lk 6:12.
19) See Lk 4:16.
20) See Mt 21:13 and par.
21) See Mt 14:19 and par.; Mt 15:36 and par.
22) See Mt 26:26 and par.
23) See Lk 24:30.
24) See Mt 26:30 and par.
25) See Jn 12:27ff.
26) See Jn 17:1-26.
27) See Mt 26:36-44 and par.
28) See Lk 23:34 and 46; Mt 27:46; Mk 15:34.
29) See Heb 7:25.
30) Mt 5:44, 7:7, 26:41; Mk 13:33, 14:38; Lk 6:28, 10:2, 11:9, 22:40 and 46.
31) Jn 14:13ff., 15:16, 16:23ff. and 26.
32) See Mt 6:9-13; Lk 11:2-4.
33) See Lk 18:1.
34) See Lk 18:9-14.
35) See Lk 21:36; Mk 13:33.
36) See Lk 11:5-13,18:1-8; Jn 14:13, 16:23.
37) See Mt 6:5-8, 23:14; Lk 20:47; Jn 4:23.
38) See Rom 8:15 and 26; 1 Cor 12:3; Gal 4:6; Jude 20.
39) See 2 Cor 1:20; Col 3:17.
40) See Heb 13:15.
41) See Rom 12:12; 1 Cor 7:5; Eph 6:18; Col 4:2; 1 Thes 5:17; 1 Tm 5:5; 1 Pt
42) See 1 Tm 4:5; Jas 5:15ff.; 1 Jn 3:22, 5:14ff.
43) See Eph 5:19ff.; Heb 13:15; Rv 19:5.
44) See Col 3:17; Phil 4:6; 1 Thes 5:17; 1 Tm 2:1.
45) See Rom 8:26; Phil 4:6.
46) See Rom 15:30; 1 Tm 2:1ff.; Eph 6:18; 1 Thes 5:25; Jas 5:14 and 16.
47) See 1 Tm 2:5; Heb 8:6, 9:15, 12:24.
48) See Rom 5:2; Eph 2:18, 3:12.
49) See SC art. 83.
50) See LG no. 10.
51) Augustine, Enarrat. in Ps. 85, 1: CCL 39, 1176.
52) See Lk 10:21, the occasion when Jesus "rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and
said: 'I thank you, Father...'".
53) See Acts 2:42 Gr.
54) See Mt 6:6.
55) See SC art. 12.
56) See SC art. 83-84.
57) See SC art. 88.
58) See SC art. 94.
59) See PO no. 5.
60) CD no. 30.
61) SC art. 5.
62) See SC art. 83 and 98.
63) SC art. 7.
64) See SC art. 10.
65) SC art. 33.
66) See SC art. 24.
67) See SC art. 33.
68) 1 Thes 5:17.
69) See Heb 13:15.
70) SC art. 84.
71) SC art. 85.
72) See SC art. 83.
73) LG no. 50; SC art. 8 and 104.
74) LG no. 48.
75) See Rom 8:19.
76) See SC art. 83.
77) See Heb 5:7.
78) See PO no. 6.
79) See LG no. 41.
80) See no. 24 of this Instruction.
81) See PC no. 7.
82) SC art. 10.
83) SC art. 2.
84) See Jn 15:5.
85) See SC art. 86.
86) See Eph 2:21-22.
87) See Eph 4:13.
88) See SC art. 2.
89) See SC art. 90. Rule of St. Benedict ch. 19.
90) See PO no. 14; OT no. 8.
91) See SC art. 26.
92) See SC art. 41.
93) CD no. 11.
94) See art. 42. See also AA no. 10.
95) See SC art. 26 and 84.
96) See AG no. 17.
97) CD no. 15.
98) See SC art. 100.
99) See PO no. 5.
100) See nos. 100-109 of this Instruction.
101) CD no. 33; see also PC nos. 6, 7, 15; AG no. 15.
102) See SC art. 99.
103) See SC art. 100.
104) See Jn 4:23.
105) See GE no. 2; AA no. 16.
106) See AA no. 11.
107) See PO no. 13.
108) See SC art. 41; LG no. 21.
109) See LG no. 26; CD no. 15.
110) See PO no. 13.
111) See PO no. 5.
112) See Jn 10:11, 17:20 and 23.
113) See SC art. 90.
114) See LG no. 41.
115) See DV no. 25; PO no. 13.
116) See Paul VI, Motu Proprio Sacram Diaconatus Ordinem, 18 June 1967, no. 27.
117) See SCR, Instr. InterOec no. 78b.
118) See SC art. 95.
119) See Acts 4:32.
120) See SC art. 100.
121) See SC art. 26, 28-30.
122) See SC art. 27.
1) See Heb 3:7-4:16.
2) SC art. 89a; see also art. 100.
3) Basil the Great, Regulae fusius tractatae resp. 37, 3: PG 31, 1014.
4) Cyprian, De oratione dominica 35: PL 4, 561.
5) Basil the Great, Regulae fusius tractatae resp. 37, 3: PG 31, 1015.
6) See Ps 141:2.
7) John Cassian, De institutione coenob. 3, 3: PL 49, 124, 125.
8) Cyprian, De oratione dominica 35: PL 4, 560.
9) RP, Ordination of Priests no. 14.
10) Ambrose, De officiis ministrorum 1, 20, 88: PL 16, 50. See also DV no. 25.
11) SC art. 89c.
12) Augustine, Sermo Guelferbytanus 5: PL Suppl 2, 550.
13) Ibid.: PL Suppl 2, 552.
14) See SC art. 89.
15) See SC art. 38.
1) SC art. 90.
2) Rule of St. Benedict ch. 19.
3) See Rule of St. Benedict ch. 19.
4) See Mt 22:44ff.
5) See SC art. 91.
6) SC art. 102.
7) Gregory the Great, Homilia 34 in Evangelia: PL 76: 1282.
8) See SC art. 38.
9) Vincent of Lerins, Commonitorium 2: PL 50, 640.
10) Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermo 3 in vigilia Nativitatis 1: PL 183 (ed. 1879)
11) See SC art. 92c.
12) See SC art. 93.
13) See SC art. 38.
14) Thus, for example, John Chrysostom, In Epist. ad Tim 1, Homilia 6: PG 62,
15) See SC art. 38.
16) See SC art. 83 and 89.
17) See no. 256 of this Instruction.
18) SC art. 30.
1) See SC art. 100.
2) See SC art. 111.
3) See General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar no. 52.
4) See ibid. no. 52c.
5) See ibid. Table of Liturgical Days nos. 4 and 8.
6) SC art. 51.
7) See nos. 100-109 of this Instruction.
1) SC art. 28.
2) SCR, Instr. MusSacr, 5 March 1967, no. 37. See also SC art. 99.
3) See SC art. 113.
4) See SC art. 116.
5) SCR, Instr. MusSacr no. 9. See also SC art. 116.
6) SCR, Instr. MusSacr no. 41; see also nos. 54-61.
7) See ibid. no. 51.
8) See ibid. no. 6.
9) See ibid. nos. 16a and 38.
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